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The pie charts show changes in UK spending patterns between 1971 and 30 years later, 2001.

As an overall trend, increased amounts of money spent on cars, computers and eating out were made up for by drops in expenditure on food and books.

In detail, food and car made up the two biggest item of expenditure in both years. Together they comprised over half of household spending in the UK. Food accounted for 44% of spending in 1971, but this dropped by two thirds to 14% in 2001. However, the outlay on cars doubled, rising from 22% in 1971 to 43% in 2001.

Other areas changed significantly. Spending on eating out doubled, climbing from 7% to 14%. The proportion of salary spent on computers increased dramatically, up from 2% in 1971 to 12% in 2001. However, as computer expenditure rose, the percentage of outlay on books plunged from 6% to 1%.

(151 words)


In recent times, there has been a number of changes within the structure of families, and the roles that family members play. This essay will discuss those changes, and the impacts these trends are having on families.

Firstly, in a lot of countries, many people are now choosing to live in a nuclear family structure, where only parents and children live together, and grandparents live separately. In the past, however, it was quite common in many countries for three, or even four generations of a family to all live under the one roof. There has also been a shift in the roles that various family members play. For example, in the past, it was commonplace for men to have to work to provide for their families, and women to stay at home to cook, clean, and raise the children. However, many women nowadays are choosing to work instead, while some fathers stay at home to help out with family and household duties.

These changes can bring about both positive and negative effects. Nuclear family structures allow more freedom to parents who no longer want to live in their hometown, in order to pursue their career. Many people need to live in large cites these days to find work, however many older, retired people want to remain living in their hometown. Though, one disadvantage of the nuclear family is that grandparents may not be available to help raise and care for grandchildren. In terms of the changing roles, women have greatly benefited from the opportunity to pursue a career, and become the breadwinner of the family, instead of being a housewife. One downside of this trend though might be that some people would argue that women are better at domestic duties than stay-at-home dads.

In conclusion, I believe there are both positive and negative effects from these changes, though the impacts on each individual family will be different.

(281 words)